^ Jump up to: a b c d GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". The Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
People with diabetes show an increased rate of urinary tract infection.[72] The reason is bladder dysfunction that is more common in diabetics than in non-diabetics due to diabetic nephropathy. When present, nephropathy can cause a decrease in bladder sensation, which in turn, can cause increased residual urine, a risk factor for urinary tract infections.[73]
The only reason to continue to give this bad advice is the lingering fear of natural fat. If you’re going to avoid fat you need to eat more carbohydrates in order to get satiated. But in recent years the old theory about fat being dangerous has been proven incorrect and is today on its way out. Low-fat products are simply unnecessary. So this reason doesn’t hold up either.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essential anabolic hormone that exerts multiple effects on glucose, lipid, protein and mineral metabolism, as well as growth. Importantly, insulin allows glucose to enter muscle and adipose cells, stimulates the liver to store glucose as glycogen and synthesize fatty acids, stimulates the uptake of amino acids, inhibits the breakdown of fat in adipose tissue, and stimulates the uptake of potassium into cells. People with T1DM require life-long insulin replacement therapy. Without insulin, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) develops and is life-threatening.[1][2]


Type 1 diabetes (sometimes known as juvenile diabetes) affects children and adults, though people can be diagnosed at any age. With a typically quick onset, T1D must be managed with the use of insulin—either via injection or insulin pump. Soon, people who are insulin dependent may also be able to use artificial pancreas systems to automatically administer their insulin.
Purnell JQ, Hokanson JE, Cleary PA, Nathan DM, Lachin JM, Zinman B, et al. The Effect of Excess Weight Gain with Intensive Diabetes Treatment on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Atherosclerosis in Type 1 Diabetes: Results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial / Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study (DCCT/EDIC) Study. Circulation. 2012 Dec 4. [Medline].
Diabetes has been coined the “silent killer” because the symptoms are so easy to miss. Over 24 million people in America have diabetes, so this is no tiny issue. Kids years ago hardly ever knew another child with diabetes, but such is no longer the case. Approximately 1.25 million children in the United States living with diabetes, which is very telling for state of health in America in 2016 when children are having to endure a medical lifestyle at such a young age.
Diabetes can damage your nerves and lead to a condition called diabetic neuropathy. This is common in the feet. Small cuts, especially on the bottom of your feet, can quickly turn into severe ulcers and infections. This is because you can’t feel or see the cuts, so you don’t treat them. That is why it’s important to check your feet regularly if you have diabetes. If you happen to notice any foot injuries, let your doctor know right away.
[1] Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Long-term effects of lifestyle intervention or metformin on diabetes development and microvascular complications over 15-year follow-up: the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2015;3(11):866‒875. You can find more information about this study on the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study website.

People who are obese -- more than 20% over their ideal body weight for their height -- are at particularly high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and its related medical problems. Obese people have insulin resistance. With insulin resistance, the pancreas has to work overly hard to produce more insulin. But even then, there is not enough insulin to keep sugars normal.
Use a 9-inch plate. Put nonstarchy vegetables on half of the plate; a meat or other protein on one-fourth of the plate; and a grain or other starch on the last one-fourth. Starches include starchy vegetables such as corn and peas. You also may eat a small bowl of fruit or a piece of fruit, and drink a small glass of milk as included in your meal plan.
With gestational diabetes, risks to the unborn baby are even greater than risks to the mother. Risks to the baby include abnormal weight gain before birth, breathing problems at birth, and higher obesity and diabetes risk later in life. Risks to the mother include needing a cesarean section due to an overly large baby, as well as damage to heart, kidney, nerves, and eye.
A 2011 report from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that approximately 1 million Americans have type 1 DM. [40] The CDC estimated that each year from 2002 to 2005, type 1 DM was newly diagnosed in 15,600 young people. Among children younger than 10 years, the annual rate of new cases was 19.7 per 100,000 population; among those 10 years or older, the rate was 18.6 per 100,000 population. [40]
If you have type 1 diabetes, you’ll need to take insulin shots (or wear an insulin pump) every day to manage your blood sugar levels and get the energy your body needs. Insulin can’t be taken as a pill because the acid in your stomach would destroy it before it could get into your bloodstream. Your doctor will work with you to figure out the most effective type and dosage of insulin for you.
Most people with diabetes find that it is quite helpful to sit down with a dietitian or nutritionist for a consult about what is the best diet for them and how many daily calories they need. It is quite important for diabetics to understand the principles of carbohydrate counting and how to help control blood sugar levels through proper diet. Below are some general principles about the diabetic diet.
Polymorphisms of the class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes that encode DR and DQ are the major genetic determinants of type 1 DM. Approximately 95% of patients with type 1 DM have either HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4. Heterozygotes for those haplotypes are at significantly greater risk for DM than homozygotes. HLA-DQs are also considered specific markers of type 1 DM susceptibility. In contrast, some haplotypes (eg, HLA-DR2) confer strong protection against type 1 DM. [11]

Barry E Brenner, MD, PhD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Heart Association, American Thoracic Society, Arkansas Medical Society, New York Academy of Medicine, New York Academy ofSciences,and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Diabetes has been coined the “silent killer” because the symptoms are so easy to miss. Over 24 million people in America have diabetes, so this is no tiny issue. Kids years ago hardly ever knew another child with diabetes, but such is no longer the case. Approximately 1.25 million children in the United States living with diabetes, which is very telling for state of health in America in 2016 when children are having to endure a medical lifestyle at such a young age.
Home blood sugar (glucose) testing is an important part of controlling blood sugar. One important goal of diabetes treatment is to keep the blood glucose levels near the normal range of 70 to 120 mg/dl before meals and under 140 mg/dl at two hours after eating. Blood glucose levels are usually tested before and after meals, and at bedtime. The blood sugar level is typically determined by pricking a fingertip with a lancing device and applying the blood to a glucose meter, which reads the value. There are many meters on the market, for example, Accu-Check Advantage, One Touch Ultra, Sure Step and Freestyle. Each meter has its own advantages and disadvantages (some use less blood, some have a larger digital readout, some take a shorter time to give you results, etc.). The test results are then used to help patients make adjustments in medications, diets, and physical activities.
Although sugar does not cause the blood sugar to rise any higher than other carbohydrates, it should be eaten along with other healthy foods. If you choose to drink a 12-ounce can of a sugar-sweetened soft drink, that would use up about 45 grams of carba, and you wouldn't have gotten any nutrition (protein, vitamins, or minerals). What a waste of calories!
It is not completely clear what causes type 1 diabetes. There is an increase of type 1 diabetes among family members, which suggests that there may be a hereditary component to the condition. There is also some evidence that it is an autoimmune disease (the body fighting its own pancreatic cells). It has also been suggested that type 1 diabetes may be triggered by a virus.
The progression of nephropathy in patients can be significantly slowed by controlling high blood pressure, and by aggressively treating high blood sugar levels. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) used in treating high blood pressure may also benefit kidney disease in patients with diabetes.

Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more common than type 1 diabetes with about 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes having T2D. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s report, 30.3 million Americans, or 9.4% of the US population have diabetes.1 More alarming, an estimated 84 million more American adults have prediabetes, which if not treated, will advance to diabetes within five years.1
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